Cosmic factors of evolution of biosphere and geosphere.
Preliminary Program and Abstracts
V.N.Obridko (IZMIRAN) Opening Speech.
L.M.Gindilis (SAI MSU) A review of ideas of life origin: from ancient to the present times.
Yu.A.Shchekinov, M. Safonova (
Cosmological aspects of the habitability
V.V.Busarev (SAI MSU) Rock-ice bodies as possible incubators of primary life
N.G.Bochkarev (SAI MSU) Dust and molecule migration in the Universe. The llimits of panspermia.
V.V.Adushkin, G.V. Pechernikova and A.V. Vityazev (IGD RAS) Exogenous factor in Earth evolution: astrophysics and a weak form of the panspermia hypothesis
Yu.I.Zetzer (IGD RAS) Concept of geosphere
G.G.Managadze (Space Research Inst of RAS) Meteorite-impact plasma torch as a cosmic factor of formation of mirror symmetry breaking of amino acids
V.N.Obridko (IZMIRAN) The young Sun: paradoxes and hypotheses
M.M. Katsova and M.A.Livshits (SAI MSU – IZMIRAN). Activity of the young Sun
D.D.Sokoloff. (MSU – IZMIRAN) Maunder minimum: Basic features and hypotheses of the origin
B.V.Somov (SAI MSU) Theoretical estimation of the extreme flares energy
M.M. Katsova and M.A.Livshits (SAI MSU – IZMIRAN) The young Sun flare activity according to data on processes on late-type dwarfs
V.N. Ishkov (IZMIRAN) Solar flare superevents: when do they occur; what are their realization energy limits.
Yu.A.Nagovitsin (Pulkova Obs., SPb), V.N.Obrodko (IZMIRAN), A.I.Kuleshova (Pulkova Obs., SPb), The highest level of sunspot activity as observed over a long time interval
A.V.Markov (Palaeontological Institute, RAS and Biological Faculty, MSU) Early stages of life: Archean, early Proterozoic
A.V.Yakushev (MSU) et al. Specific features of ecosystems operation under Antarctic conditions.
D.M.Pechersky (Inst of Physics of the Earth of RAS), V.P.Shcherbakov (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth) Geomagnetic reversals – properties, cause and possible impact on the biosphere
O.V.Khabatova (IZMIRAN) Evolution of biosphere
L.I.Miroshnichenko (IZMIRAN) Cosmic rays as a factor of biosphere evolution
M.V.Rogulskaya (IZMIRAN) Live organism adaptation to cosmic factors’ impact – problems and prospects of further research
A REVIEW OF IDEAS CONCERNING LIFE ORIGIN:
FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY
Since the times of Antiquity the and for a long time the idea of self-origination of life was the dominant one. It reappeared again after microorganisms were discovered (XVII century). The possibility of abiogenesis at microbial level was discussed for more than a century. Pateur demonstrated that spontaneous origination of microorganisms in sterile broth was due to those same microorganisms transported by dust particles. Thus proving that every form of life originates from the parental life form. So the question arises: how did the first microorganisms appear on the Earth. There are three possible versions: 1) accidental origination of a viable form; 2) primal organisms were transported to the Earth from outer space; 3) they were formed on the Earth in the process of prebiotic chemical evolution. We discuss the problems of prebiotic evolution from simple monomers up to living cells. An important item of nowadays conceptions of life origination is the hypothesis of the ancient world of RNA as possible precursor of life on Earth. The discovery in carbonaceous chondrites of traces of bacterial life evidences the existence of life in the Solar System even
before the formation of the Earth.
The idea of life as brought to the Earth out of Cosmos originated under the impression of self-origination hypothesis downfall. It went through several stages (Helmholtz, W.
Thompson, XIX century; Arrhenius, early XX century; Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, second half of XX century) and presently evokes constantly growing interest. The panspermia theory does not solve the problem of origination of life, only moves it onto other planets. According to V.A. Mazur, the probability of accidental formation of RNA molecule is negligible not only on the Earth, but in the whole Universe over all the time span of its existence. But it is practically equal to unit in the domain formed at the inflation stage of the evolution of the Universe. A.D. Panov considered panspermia in the Galaxy at the level of prebiotic evolution products. The quantitative model he has brought forward increases life origination probability by many orders of magnitude in comparison with any isolated planet. In this model the life to originates simultaneously on all the planets with proper conditions on the same molecular basis,
one and the same genetic code and the same chirality.
COSMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HABITABILITY OF EXOPLANETS
Shchekinov Yu.A.1, Safonova M.2 and Murphy J.2
2Indian Institute of
Habitable zone (HZ) defines the region around a start within which planets may support liquid water at their surfaces, which is supposed to be the necessary factor for origination and development of life on the planet. Currently we know about 30 planets inside HZ. The most interesting question is that of possibility of existence of complex life on the planets. As several space-based project aimed at searching of traces of life at exoplanets are presently being worked out, the problem of elaboration of criteria for selection out of the list of planets inside HZ those which most probably host life acquires supreme importance. It is usually implicitly assumed that planets inside HZ may host life, not taking into consideration such an important factor as the planet age. On the other hand the crucial importance of the factor meets the eye immediately. In fact, if we consider a life similar to that on the Earth, it is obvious, that planets younger than 1 Gyr can hardly bear even primitive life-forms because life needs time to originate and develop. Moreover, as a part of biochemical and metabolic processes are endothermic, and, therefore, threshold, the process of life origination may prove extremely sensitive even to tiny HZ parameter variations. Still a most of the discovered planets are known to orbit young stars (stellar population I), no older than several mullions of years. So a considerable number of planets sure HZ inhabitants may prove too young to be really inhabitable. On the other hand, 12–13 Gyr old planetary systems (population II) may happen to be more probable bearers of life. In spite of the fact that such systems are, in the average more distant from us that the population I stars, estimations of possibility of direct detection of traces of metabolism on those systems are quite optimistic, if we bear in mind planetary systems of old law-mass K-stars.
STONE-ICE BODIES AS POSSIBLE INCUBATORS OF A PRIMARY LIFE
Widespread in the interstellar medium three-atomic molecules of HCN and H2O and derivative formamid (NH2COH) are the basis for the origin of life. It is shown that irradiation of formamid by protons in the presence of terrestrial mineral and meteoritic catalysts in conditions compatible with terrestrial leads to simultaneous synthesis of a wide range of compounds (amino acids, heterocycles, alcohols, amides, sugars, etc.) having potential to develop as genetics (based on RNA and DNA), and metabolism underlying terrestrial life forms [1, 2]. However, the intended path of extraterrestrial origin of life in the open interstellar medium could not reach its logical end. The subsequent stages of the assumed biological synthesis needed protection from the harsh cosmic factors and presence of liquid water, catalysts, etc. (e.g., ). Such conditions could be realized only on planetary bodies and/or in their interiors.
On the basis of observations and calculations, the author suggested that the objects were in the early Solar system. Such could be stone-ice bodies.
2. Saladino R., Botta G., Pino S., Costanzo G., Di Mauro E. Genetics First or Metabolism First? The Formamide Clue // Chemical Society Review. 2012. V. 41. P. 5526–5565.
3. Rubin R.H., Benson R.C., Tigelaar H.L., Flygare W.H. Microwave detection of interstellar formamide // Mémoires Soc. Royale des Sci. de Liège. 1972. T. III. P. 471–474.
MIGRATION OF MOLECULES AND DUST IN THE UNIVERSE. LIMITATIONS OF PANSPERMIA
P.K. Sternberg Astronomical Institute of
Types of astronomical objects that may contain molecules are listed. Possible forms of migration of molecules are briefly described. Also described are: properties of interstellar molecular clouds, structure of interstellar dust grains, observational manifestations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fullerenes, evolution of cosmic dust grains, the dust component of interstellar wind, possible mechanisms of migration of molecules and dust on scale from planetary systems to galaxies, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe hypothesis about the biological nature of some dust grains and the limitations of the area of possible panspermia.
ASTROPHYSICS AND WEAK FORM OF PANSPERMIA HYPOTHESIS AND EXOGENOUS FACTORS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH
Adushkin V.V., Vityazev A.V., Glazachev D.O. and Pechernikova G.V.
Institute of Geosphere Dynamics RAS (IDG RAS),
The problems of the origin of Earth and life are fundamental in the modern science. We, relying on the data of resent years, contemplate a new course of research in this old problem. On the base of astrophysical data, obtained during the last 30–50 years, and the resent results of the study of small bodies in the Solar System (comets in particular) it is possible to combine the old idea about panspermia in a comprehensive sense and the search of the basis of life on the early Earth grounded on theoretical and laboratory data on the Earth evolution. Most likely, the Sun and a gas-and-dust disk surrounding it were created in a Giant molecular cloud near young giants – blue O-B-stars which ultraviolet radiation provided a weak chirality (to 15% of EEs) in organics of interstellar dust. Further a part of interstellar dust beyond orbits larger than 3–4 a.u. remained cold and then entered into the first planetesimals. The organics, after melting of interiors of the first planetesimals due to the heating by shortliving 26Al and 60Fe, sank, in the form of kerogens, into the core where formation of the first complex organic compounds began. This occurred in the first 3–4 Myr after the CAI. Apparently, it is necessary to look for anaerobic life in comets. In geosciences obtained various data banks, such as data on the endogenous activity of the Earth, mass extinctions of life and changes in biodiversity, impacts of cosmic bodies, inversions of the magnetic field, climate change, etc. The problem of cyclicity and correlation of all these processes is studied for 50 years. Results of spectral, wavelet and correlation analysis of the data series, representing some of these processes are given. We conclude, that most of them are cyclic, some of the periods are present in all the processes. The mechanisms of the influence of the galaxy on the processes occurring on the Earth are discussed.
ACTIVITY OF THE SUN IN THE AGE OF 1–2 GYR
Katsova M.M.1, Livshits M.A.1,2
We discuss briefly the basic properties of the solar activity in the present epoch and the development of ideas of gyrochronology about the evaluation of the stellar age from their activity level. We revealed a set of active late-type dwarfs, which slowed down to rotation periods of 10–11 days and have the indices of the chromospheric and coronal activity corresponding to the age of 1–2 billion years. We selected several stars, the activity of which can be as an example of the phenomena occurring in the young Sun. The analysis of activity of these stars allows us to estimate levels of photospheric, chromospheric and coronal activity of the young Sun. We estimate the mass loss due to the quasi-stationary and coronal mass ejections. Based on the Kepler observations of superflares on G stars, we evaluate a probable frequency of non-stationary phenomena with a total energy of about 1034 ergs. It is shown that such superflares may occur in magnetic fields actually observed on G dwarfs.
MAUNDER MINIMUM – BASIC FEATURES AND HYPOTHESES OF THE ORIGIN
Data of solar instrumental observations survived in astronomical archives (that one of Observatoire de Paris, in the first line) shows that the engine supporting cyclic solar activity had serious abnormality at the end XVII – beginning XVIII centuries. The abnormality is known as Maunder minimum. A personal; contribution from the King Louis XIV is the fact that many stages of the event was observed so carefully that such quality of observation is a problem even for modern observatories. Less direct isotopic data shows that the events similar to the Maunder minimum happened many times in the past and allow to isolated 27 Grand minima in the last 10 000 years. Several deviations (e.g. a lost cycle, traces of pronounced quadrupole configuration etc) from the standard type of the cyclic solar cyclic activity can be isolated for XVIII – early XIX centuries.
SOLAR FLARE SUPEREVENTS: WHEN THEY OCCUR AND THE ENERGY LIMITS OF THEIR REALIZATION
Statistics reliable series of relative sunspot numbers (timeline in 164 – 14 solar cycles – SC) to give a consistent picture of the solar cyclicity. This pattern provides for regular changes of magnetic field generation in the solar convection zone in the transition from the epoch of the "higher" solar activity (SC 7–11 and 18–22) to the epoch of the "lower" solar activity (SC 12–16) and vice versa – from the epoch of the "lower" to "higher" solar activity. Before each such epoch occurs a change of the magnetic field generation regime in the solar convective zone, which occurs during approximate one physical 22-year cycle of solar activity. The reconstruction of the sunspot-forming regime, apparently, could be observed in the SC 10–11 and SC 22–23, when the magnetic field of the solar convection zone having been converted to
the "lower" solar activity. In SC 17–18 was a similar restructuring of magnetic fields to the era of the "higher" solar activity. On this statistics the most powerful solar flare super events (1859, VIII-IX – SC 10; 1991, VI – SC 22; 2003, X – XI – SC 23) were observed precisely in these periods of magnetic field reconstruction. They all were occurrence in the anomalously large solar sunspot groups with the areas of ≥ 2300 mvh. Since solar flare events are the consequence of interaction of new magnetic flux with the already existing magnetic field of active region, are examined the cases of the observations, which lead to the solar flare superevents. The attempt to estimate maximally possible amounts of intensity and power of solar flare super-events is made.
ACTIVE PROCESSES ON THE SUN AND THEIR GEOEFFECTIVENESS
Porfir’eva G. and Yakunina G.
Abstract. Results of observations during last decades are revised to analyze relations between properties of flares and of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) accompanied by geomagnetic storms. The more massive, quick and wide CMEs are statistically associated with the energetic flares. Solar Proton Events (SPEs) happen often in active regions (ARs) with gamma-beta-delta magnetic configuration causing extra-ordinary flare activity. The greater area of the AR is the stronger flares and geomagnetic storms are. Influence of variations of direction and velocity of a CME, propagating through the heliosphere, on its geoeffectiveness is discussed. Some aspects of the influence of the flares on the properties of the Earth ionosphere are considered.
FEATURES OF THE FUNCTIONING BACTERIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE ANTARCTIC
Yakushev A.V.1, Churilin N.1, Soina V.S.1, Vorobyova E.A.2, Mergelov N.S.3
1Faculty of Soil
Institute of the Russian akademii Sciences, Moscow,
Geography of the Russian akademii Sciences, Moscow,
Despite the low numbers according to seeding, physiological diversity of bacteria in gidrolitikov horizon "stone bridge" high and drops sharply to the mineral horizon. Most metabolic willingness to utilize biopolymers in the horizon "stone bridge", but the largest share of fast-growing bacteria (probably Bacillus) in the subsurface. Unusual ability to consume chitin in the subsurface associated with an abundance of fungal mycelium, noticeable to the naked eye. Not able to consume Tween-20 (a water-soluble analogue of fat) bacterial community of Arctic soils are not explained and needs further verification. The phenomenon is investigated microbial communities that, unlike soils in temperate zones, in liquid associations dominated not free-swimming planktonic forms but pl£nkoobrazovateli (e.g., Bacillus cereus var. mycoides), forming a mineral matrix of the biofilm
GEOMAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS AND LIFE ON THE EARTH IN PHANEROZOIC TIME
O.Yu. Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS,
Global paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data are generalized. As a result it is found
out that the direct connection between geomagnetic reversals, biozones and maxima of mass extinction of a biota is absent. At the same time it is noted close to a synchronous total picture of consistent changes of biozones and geomagnetic polarity. It is explained by the general source – the Earth’s diurnal rotation. The reversal polarity of a geomagnetic field prevailed during the Phanerozoic that is agreed with the Earth’s counterclockwise rotation. Change of polarity of a field, most likely, is connected with acceleration or deceleration of rotation speed of the internal core relative to the Earth's mantle.
Lack of direct interrelation between changes in the biosphere and geomagnetic field indicate a lack of influence of a field on life evolution on Earth. It follows also from the fact that life on Earth developed from primitive unicellular forms to mammals and the man and diversity of biota was grew against a close condition of a geomagnetic field during ~2,5 billion years and irrespective of numerous geomagnetic reversals. Main conclusion: evolutionary development of life on Earth doesn't depend both on large changes of a geomagnetic field, and on the extreme catastrophic events conducting to mass extinction of a biota.
A ROLE WHICH INTERACTION BETWEEN THE CLIMATE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLAY IN SHAPING THE CLIMATE RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL FORCING
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian
The Earth system, in addition to its physical compartments (the atmosphere, the ocean, the soil, and the cryosphere), also includes ecosystems. The latter interact with all other compartments and affect climate variations at a large number of spatial and temporal scales. According to the simulations with global climate models, an increase of albedo due to land use in the 20th century has compensated 10–20% of the global warming during this century. In addition, a replacement of the natural vegetation by crops suppresses moisture transport by terrestrial plants from the soil to the atmosphere and, hence, local precipitation. In some cases, biogeophysical processes might lead to multistability at a regional scale. The latter serves as an effective amplifier of small external forcing. For instance, these process may be responsible
to disappearance of vegetation in western Sahara in the mid-Holocene. Among the biogeochemical processes, the most important role for climate is played by the carbon cycle. The uptake of carbon by the ocean and by the terrestrial ecosystems depends on the climate state. The latter dependence results in a feedback between the climate and the carbon cycle. From the simulations with global climate models it is found that this feedback is positive: it amplifies the greenhouse-gases-induced warming, by about 10% in the 21st century. The climatecarbon cycle feedback may be modified by interaction between the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical cycles, e.g., with the nitrogen cycle. Climate changes may also change the emission of methane from wet soil. It is found that the climate-methane cycle feedback, despite markedly amplifying the CH4 build up in the atmosphere, change the climate response to external forcing very insignificantly.
POLAR ICE AND CLIMATE OF THE EARTH
Kovadlo P.G. and Yazev S.á.
The hypothesis to explain
observed warming climate is proposed. It is assumed that land existed in the
past at the site of the
TOWARD SYSTEMATIC AND INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RELATIONS
Smolkov G.Ya.1, Barkin Yu.V. 2
1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial
Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
2Sternberg Astronomical Institute,
Physics of solar-terrestrial relations is one of fundamental issues for present-day science, because these relations determine the state and variability of the mankind habitat and activity. Non-system studying solar-terrestrial relations deprived of the objective account for all primary external causes, without interdisciplinary explaining mechanisms for their effect on the Earth, inevitably results in the forced attributing inexplicable processes and phenomena to "natural anomalies," impedes forecasting variations in the environment. Statement, statistical and correlation analyses, still widely used, are not accompanied by due interpretation of the studied. Along with solar activity and galactic cosmic ray flows, one should take into account the Earth endogenous activity caused by an external gravity forcing on the shells of our planet (core, mantle, etc.) including disturbance of the Solar system integrally from outside.
COSMIC RAYS AS A FACTOR OF BIOSPHERIC EVOLUTION
1N.V. Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation
(IZMIRAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow, 142190, Russia 2M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP),119234 Moscow, Russia
There are no doubts that the Earth’s space environment in the past inevitably has exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1–4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known space factors are usually the fluxes of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind) and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wave lengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth’s biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper , below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF COSMIC RAYS NEAR THE EARTH SURFACE
A direct evidence of biological effects of cosmic rays (CR) near the Earth surface was demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs 43,44,45) in the neutron count rate detected by groundbased neutron monitor in October 1989 and during a quiet period in August, October 1990. Time coincidence of numerous disorders of nuclear substances in three cell lines with solar proton events and Ground Level Enhancement gives the basis to consider the increase of secondary components of solar cosmic rays as a reason of revealed phenomena. The simulation of particle cascades in the atmosphere by using the Monte Carlo PLANETOCOSMICS code based on GEANT4, solar proton data (GOES 6, GOES 7), ground-based neutron monitors observations were used for calculation of particle fluencies at the latitude of the Apatity (67.57 N, 33.40 E, 0.65 GV, 950 g/cm2). Neutron fluxes generated by fast (fc) and by delayed (dc) components of solar particles in three events were taken for consideration. The drastic increase of neutron fluencies near the Earth surface at the Apatity latitude was found during three GLEs. Total fluxes (fc+dc) during GLE 43, 44, 45 were estimated as 13801.7, 5714.1, 19807.1 n/cm2-hr. The integral ambient dose equivalent from three cases of GLE consists of about 217 μSv per three days, that is almost half of daily doses on the board of space stations 535 μSv/day and more than average annual effective dose rate under outdoors, altitude adjusted conditions exposure of neutrons (124 μSv a-1). Synchronous cell fusion in the all cellular lines irrespective of their origin and culturing conditions during quiet period in August and October 1990 confirms the high biological effectiveness of the secondary cosmic rays.
RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION OF LOW FREQUENCY ON THE DNA OF TEST CELL STRUCTURE
Tekutskaya E.E., Barishev M.G., Vishnevsky V.V.
The Kuban state university,
In IR spectrums of the DNA water solutions emitted cages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, after their radiation of EMP LF, observed emergence of new peaks in areas 460–450 cm-1 (the 1st peak) and 1100–1000 cm-1 which sizes depended on the frequency of EMP applied to radiation and on temperature. Dependences of height of these peaks on the frequency of EMP from which it is visible are constructed that the greatest influence on the DNA solutions emitted from cages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, renders EMP with a frequency 8,0 Hz.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM RESPONSE AT PEOPLE WITH VARIOUS STATE OF ADAPTATIVE ABILITIES ON CHANGES OF SPACE WEATHER PARAMETERS
Samsonov S.N.1, Manykina V.I.1, Parshina S.S.2
For the purpose of revealing the
real space weather effect on the human’s health, there is an international
Russian-Ukrainian experiment “Geliomed” displayed. Analysis of the experimental
material let us show a synchronism and globality of this influence
(simultaneous performance of space weather parameters at the state of
cardiovascular system in groups of subjects separated by
COSMIC FACTORS AND BIOSYSTEM ADAPTATION – PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation, RAS,
The article discusses the current state of the gained knowledge of the space weather’s impacts on the biosphere. The role of the modern chrono-biological investigations in the solving of the “young Sun problem” as well as their application to the tasks of the early stages of the terrestrial life forming is considered. The study of biotropic effects of modern space weather is possible answers to the question about of the formation for evolutionary and adaptive scenario of ancient biosystems functioning. Influence of cosmic rays, ultraviolet and geomagnetic field on early life has its signs in modern biosphere processes, which may be experimentally studied.